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Violence and Violence Reduction Efforts in Kenya, Uganda, Ghana and Ivory Coast: Insights and Lessons towards Achieving SDG 16
IDS Evidence Report 210
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This report develops evidence-based insights into contextual dimensions of violence and practices on reducing violence, from multiple perspectives and at multiple levels of governance.
In presenting our analytic narrative we are particularly interested, first, in the intersection of three crucial dimensions of violence over time:
- the incidence, types and overarching patterns of violence documented in and across the focal countries and regions, including sub-national and international geographies of violence;
- key actors and institutions implicated in trajectories of violence and peace; and
- processes of political change, including (but not limited to) violence reduction efforts.
Across all four cases, the politicisation of ethnicity; sub-national variation in political power, inclusion, development and growth; and the variable types and consequences of violence across different groups and communities, are common threads that shape the trajectories of violence and the success and efficacy of mitigation and management strategies. Second, our cross-regional analysis assesses the role of trans-border, cross-regional and international processes in spanning systems of violence and mitigation, including legacies of colonisation and de-colonisation, influences of international peace-building initiatives, transnational actors and flows, and broad trends in extractionist development.
The focus of our analysis is on two blocks of neighbouring countries in sub-Saharan Africa that have diverging violence trajectories and differing experiences of addressing violence: Kenya and Uganda in East Africa; and Ghana and Ivory Coast in West Africa. Using analyses of secondary literature and of data (from 1997) compiled by the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project (ACLED), we combine mixed-method case studies with process tracing and tiered comparison. This approach facilitates an understanding of the role of multiple factors, including governance and the evolution of institutions and justice mechanisms over time, in facilitating the emergence of violence and reducing violence at multiple levels, from sub-national to cross-regional.
Geopolitical conflicts, cybersecurity and changes in energy infrastructure present rising challenges and new opportunities
- The Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report 2016, launched today, ranks 126 countries on their ability to deliver secure, affordable and sustainable energy
- Findings reveal that all countries can improve rankings and that major economies – with the exception of France - struggle to take the lead, as transitions take longer to unfold owing to the size and complexity of their energy systems
- Three key trends are shaping the energy transition: Infrastructure and resilience; digital disruption and a new global energy security order
- Accelerating changes in technology, energy markets and geopolitics are creating new opportunities and also threats to energy security
- Explore the report reader, infographics and full report
Today the World Economic Forum released the fourth edition of the Global Energy Architecture Performance Index Report. The 2016 report puts the spotlight on energy security and access. Evolution in this area is being shaped by the fast transition underway in the energy sector, with several elements playing important roles, such as the fast growth of distributed renewable energy and recent developments in digital technology and international security.
The annual index provides a benchmark to help countries address energy transformation challenges and identify opportunities across their energy systems. This year’s study explores the energy architecture of 126 countries based on their ability to provide energy access across three dimensions of the “energy triangle” – affordability, environmental sustainability, security and access.
The shortlist of top performers is...to read the full release click here
Lessons from Small Arms and Weapons Control Initiatives in Africa
The proliferation and trafficking of small arms and light weapons (SALW) in Africa is partly attributable to weak national controls, the porosity of state borders, and ongoing armed conflict on the continent. To address these problems a number of initiatives have been undertaken by states, regional organisations, and other various implementing agencies with the aim of enhancing small arms control.
This report examines these initiatives over a ten year period (2005–2015) in sixteen countries across the Greater Sahel region and generates a set of lessons learned. These lessons cover topics such as project duplication, the impact of internal donor restructuring, and the importance of identifying the needs and implementing capacities of local partners. While these lessons are intended to contribute to the existing body of research on small arms control, they are also, more importantly, intended to help donors and practitioners improve project design and impact.