A strong evidence base is the backbone of our operations in communications, trade, investment and consultancy. We gain this knowledge from our own research, thought leaders, research institutions and other key sources of information. We stay abreast of developments in sustainability and industry innovation to keep our network members well informed. Click on categories to see a full list of our thematic areas.
Base Titanium at Kenya Mining Forum: "Key message is to show what is possible to achieve in Kenya"
Being awarded official flagship status by Kenya’s Vision 2030 for the Kwale Mine is a proud achievement for Base Titanium says Joe Schwarz, the company’s general manager external affairs and development. He adds: "this represents a significant milestone in the partnership between the Government of Kenya and Base in promoting further development of the sector."
Base Titanium is once again the exclusive diamond sponsor of the Kenya Mining Forum that is returning to Nairobi from 4-5 December.
Currently Base is at the forefront of Kenya’s mining industry, with official statistics showing that in 2016 the Kwale Mine represented close to 60% of the country’s total mineral output value.
According to Joe Schwarz "there have been many stand out highlights since acquiring and developing the Kwale Mine – the rapid and successful development of Kenya’s first large-scale, modern mining project, plant commissioning and ramp up, a justifiably proud safety record, upskilling and developing our Kenyan workforce and our community development programmes. To this list we can now add environmental rehabilitation."
Potential of mining in Kenya is clear
At the upcoming Kenya Mining Week Mr Schwarz says "Base’s key message is to show the world what is possible to achieve in Kenya. Kenya’s mining industry is still in its infancy. However, recent initiatives spearheaded by Cabinet Secretary Dan Kazungu, including the enactment of new mining legislation and regulations point to a concerted effort by the Government of Kenya to promote the industry as a new growth sector."
He adds: "the potential, however, for the mining sector to be a significant contributor to economic growth and development is clear. In an assessment by Ernst & Young on the economic impacts of Base’s Kwale Mine it was found that for every direct job created on the mine site a further four jobs were supported in the wider economy."
To read the complete interview with Base’s Joe Schwarz, go to http://www.kenyaminingforum.com/BaseTitanium-interview
Varied and practical programme
This year Kenya Mining Forum is once again hosted by the Kenya Ministry of Mining, in collaboration with the Chamber of Mines.
A varied conference programme focuses on industry issues and challenges ranging from finance, legislation, women in mining, the gemstone sector to CSR. The expo showcases leading technology and services for the sector while a practical workshop programme offers free training and up skilling for mining professionals.
Mining and infrastructure events
The Kenya Mining Forum is organised by Spintelligent, a well-known trade conference and expo organiser on the African continent. The company has particular expertise and experience in mining and infrastructure development events; including the long running flagship shows such as DRC Mining Week in Lubumbashi, Nigeria Mining Week in Abuja, Future Energy East Africa (formerly EAPIC) in Nairobi, Future Energy Nigeria (formerly WAPIC) in Lagos and African Utility Week in Cape Town.
Kenya Mining Forum dates and location:
Conference and expo: 4-5 December 2017
Venue: Safari Park Hotel & Casino, Nairobi, Kenya
Gomez-Baggethun: Assessing the Potential of Regulating Ecosystem Services as Nature-Based Solutions in Urban Area
Abstract: Mounting research assesses the provision of regulating ecosystem services by green infrastructure in urban areas, but the extent to which these services can offer effective nature-based solutions for addressing urban climate change-related challenges is rarely considered. In this chapter, we synthesize knowledge from assessments of urban green infrastructure carried out in Europe and beyond to evaluate the potential contribution of regulating ecosystem services to offset carbon emissions, reduce heat stress and abate air pollution at the metropolitan, city and site scales. Results from this review indicate that the potential of regulating ecosystem services provided by urban green infrastructure to counteract these three climate change-related pressures is often limited and/or uncertain, especially at the city and metropolitan levels. However, their contribution can have a substantially higher impact at site scales such as in street canyons and around green spaces. We note that if regulating ecosystem services are to offer effective nature-based solutions in urban areas, it is critically important that green infrastructure policies target the relevant implementation scale. This calls for a coordination between authorities dealing with urban and environmental policy and for the harmonization of planning and management instruments in a multilevel governance approach.
Keywords: Regulating ecosystem services; Urban green infrastructure; Global climate regulation; Local climate regulation; Air quality regulation; Multi-scale assessment
"This open access book brings together research findings and experiences from science, policy and practice to highlight and debate the importance of nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas. Emphasis is given to the potential of nature-based approaches to create multiple-benefits for society. The expert contributions present recommendations for creating synergies between ongoing policy processes, scientific programmes and practical implementation of climate change and nature conservation measures in global urban areas".
Implementation and effectiveness of sustainability initiatives in the palm oil sector: a review
This study is the first publication from IDDRI’s initiative on the links between global trade and local biodiversity management. It focuses on the impacts of palm oil production in Southeast Asia and on the ability of existing sustainability initiatives to bring substantial improvements to the situation. Consideration of the sustainability of palm oil production must be based primarily on the fact that three modes of production coexist, which have different impacts on the three dimensions of sustainable development considered here: deforestation, rural poverty and working conditions, and respect for customary land rights. Regarding all three dimensions, the information gathered here suggests that independent smallholder production is the most efficient.
- PALM OIL IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: THE SUSTAINABILITY OF A TWOFOLD SYSTEM INTO QUESTION
In Southeast Asia, two broad types of palm oil production systems coexist: industrial plantations and independent smallholders. Recent research suggests that while smalholder production lags clearly behind the industrial one in terms of yields/productivity, it tends to have lower impact on deforestation and better impact on rural development/rural poverty alleviation. As a consequence, taking action to improve the sustainability of the sector means simultaneously (i) helping smahollders to improve their yields while monitoring their environmental and social performance to continue enhancing their level of sustainability, and (ii) supporting private actors to meet their sustainability commitments through both incentives and regulations.
- SUSTAINABILITY INITIATIVES: CERTIFICATIONS, COMMITTED BUSINESS, TERRITORIAL APPROACHES
Existing initiatives to encourage sustainability in the palm oil industry inlude: certification schemes (whichever standard is considered); private commitments that are independent from or go beyond certification standards; and territorial approaches, based on "production area". Their respective level of stringency results from the relationships that exist between actors that bear each of them, and has gradually increased over the last 5 to 10 years, following a very positive "race to the top". Their actual impact is however still well below what they aim to achieve and there are avenues for improvement.
- GUIDELINES FOR PROMOTING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF PALM OIL PLANTATIONS
The improvement of certification schemes relies first on: developing independent audit systems, in which the direct client-supplier relationship between the auditee and the auditor is severed; strengthening dispute settlement procedures; and ensuring the recognition of the protected status of forests, and more specifically of HCV and HCS forests, in all existing standards. Other policy recommendations include better documenting the negotiation processes between actors of the value chain to reinforce the effectiveness of corporate commitments, and strengthening international cooperation to transform agricultural and rural development policies
Future Energy East Africa Industry Awards to recognise region's top energy reporter
East Africa’s top energy reporter will be honoured at this year’s edition of the Future Energy East Africa Industry Awards that are taking place on 29 November in Nairobi.
"The Energy Reporter of the Year is a new award category" says Future Energy East Africa event director Claire O’Connell, “and we felt it is high time that we honour those journalists that have taken a keen interest in the energy industry and have followed and reported the sector’s on-going challenges and successes. The media remains a key partner in Africa’s journey towards available and affordable energy for all on the continent."
She adds: "we invite all East African energy reporters to either nominate themselves or for news and industry organisations to put forward their top choice for the journalist that has covered the sector in an innovative yet objective manner. We look forward to honouring the Energy Reporter of the Year along with the other award winners in categories ranging from Outstanding Energy Project Award to Innovative Technology of the Year Award."
The hugely successful awards, formerly known as the East African Power Industry Awards, take place during this year’s rebranded Future Energy East Africa conference and exhibition from 29-30 November at the Safari Park Hotel in Nairobi. The glamorous gala dinner brings together 180 of the region’s most renowned power professionals to recognise and celebrate the leading industry pioneers and projects in six different categories.
The nomination form can be downloaded here: http://www.future-energy-eastafrica.com/nomination and the deadline for all submissions is Thursday 19 October.
The Future Energy East Africa Industry Awards categories are:
- Outstanding Contribution: Power
This award celebrates the accomplishments of an individual in a senior position from a utility, public or private company who has displayed passion and commitment to the power industry, whilst also demonstrating leadership, vision and success.
- Energy Reporter of the Year
This award recognises a professional journalist who produced outstanding work in 2016/17 for the public, either independently or as an employee of an editorially independent news entity through their reporting on the power sector in East Africa.
- Future Energy Leader Award
This award recognises a person under the age of 35 who has made an outstanding contribution to the energy industry. This young professional has had outstanding career achievements to date and a strong potential to play a leading role in their sector going forward.
- Outstanding Energy Project
The Outstanding Energy Project rewards a project launched by a utility, off-grid producer, IPP, government, minister, regulator or investor within the last 24 months (August 2015 – July 2017).
- Community Initiative of the Year
This important and prestigious award honours an organisation that demonstrates high standards and initiatives that enrich East African citizens. The award aims to recognise the values that form the cornerstone of a good business from its approach to knowledge transfer, suppliers, the environment and a sustainable future.
- Innovative Technology of the Year
This award will acknowledge a business that has achieved commercial success from energy-focused advanced technology, research or developing products, services, or solutions relevant to the energy sector.
East Africa’s energy journey
Formerly known as the East African Power Industry Convention or EAPIC, which was a firm, favourite fixture on the region’s power calendar for the last 19 years, Future Energy East Africa, with the official support of the Kenyan Ministry of Energy and Petroleum, will once again host many of the region’s leading energy decision makers from 29 – 30 November 2017.
The event is recognised as being a distinctive gathering of stakeholders within the power value chain which includes governments, power generation companies, transmission and distribution companies, off takers, developers, investors, equipment manufacturers and providers, technology providers, EPCs, legal and consulting firms all with a shared goal of supporting the on-going implementation of finding lasting solutions to East Africa’s energy challenges.
The 19th edition of the event once again enjoys widespread support from the industry with Lucy Electric, a global secondary distribution leader in the electricity sector, already confirmed as platinum sponsors.
Future Energy East Africa is organised by Spintelligent, a multi-award-winning Cape Town-based exhibition and conference producer across the continent in the infrastructure, real estate, energy, mining, agriculture and education sectors. Other well-known events by Spintelligent include African Utility Week, Future Energy Nigeria (formerly WAPIC), Future Energy Central Africa (formerly iPAD Cameroon), Future Energy Uganda, Agritech Expo Zambia, Kenya Mining Forum, Nigeria Mining Week and DRC Mining Week. Spintelligent is part of the UK-based Clarion Events Group.
Future Energy East Africa dates and location:
Strategic conference: 29-30 November 2017
Venue: Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya
This survey of the 2016 replenishments of three multilateral development bank soft funds and of the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria shows that a significant re-set of the multilateral development finance system is taking place, with grant funding fr
This survey of the 2016 replenishments of three multilateral development bank soft funds and of the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria shows that a significant re-set of the multilateral development finance system is taking place, with grant funding from traditional donors generally in decline (the Global Fund is an exception), but with the accessing of the ‘hidden equity’ in soft loan-based funds offering a large increase in such funding (most notably in the World Bank’s soft fund, the International Development Association).
‘Graduation’ of countries away from eligibility for highly concessional multilateral finance is also changing the context. This paper underlines the need for more consideration of these wider structural issues.
Courting Catastrophe? Humanitarian Policy and Practice in a Changing Climate
Humanitarian crises appear dramatic, overwhelming and sudden, with aid required immediately to save lives. Whereas climate change is about changing hazard patterns and crises are in reality rarely unexpected, with academic researchers and humanitarian and development organisations warning about possible risks for months before they take place.
While humanitarian organisations deal directly with vulnerable populations, interventions are part of global politics and development pathways that are simultaneously generating climate change, inequities and vulnerability. So what is the level of convergence between humanitarian interventions and efforts to support adaptation to climate change, and what lessons can be drawn from current experience on the prospects for reducing the risk of climate change causing increased burdens on humanitarian interventions in the future?
This IDS Bulletin is a call for increasing engagement between humanitarian aid and adaptation interventions to support deliberate transformation of development pathways. Based on studies from the ‘Courting Catastrophe’ project, contributors argue that humanitarian interventions offer opportunities for a common agenda to drive transformational adaptation. Changes in political and financial frameworks are needed to facilitate longer-term actions where demands move from delivering expert advice and solutions to vulnerable populations to taking up multiple vulnerability knowledges and making space for contestation of current development thinking. Yet while the humanitarian system could drive transformative adaptation, it should not bear responsibility alone. In this issue, alternative pathways and practical ways to support local alternatives and critical debates around these are illustrated, to demonstrate where humanitarian actions can most usefully contribute to transformation.
Women's invisible power
Picture: Social scientist Dorcas Kamuya (right) discusses her research with a group of women in Kilifi, Kenya. Credit: Kemri–Wellcome Trust Research Programme
Women hold the key to improving people's health in sub-Saharan Africa. They bear the brunt of such scourges as HIV and diabetes. And they are the primary care-givers, so their health can affect their whole community.
But tailoring health solutions to African women is not easy, partly because their access to care is often compromised by patriarchal family structures and norms, particularly in the poorest communities, which hold tightest to traditional gender roles.
Carrying out research on the mechanisms and treatments of disease in sub-Saharan Africa is difficult for similar reasons. Poverty and disease go hand in hand, so the work is often conducted in the most traditional and patriarchal communities. These social structures complicate such processes as gaining consent and giving participants feedback on the findings. But researchers have begun to learn an important lesson: by making an effort to better understand African gender roles and traditions, they — and those who plan health programmes — can help to ensure the success of their projects.
Consider an HIV-negative woman who walks into a rural clinic in Zimbabwe. Her doctor might ask her if she wants to enrol in a clinical trial of a new HIV prevention tool. The woman says that she must consult her husband. A few days later, the woman returns with her husband, who says that she can take part in the study on condition that he accompanies her.
From an ethical point of view, this situation is problematic. If the man has so much power over the decision, can the researchers be sure that the woman is participating willingly? Scientists have proposed workarounds for such scenarios, for instance by providing the women with information that targets the male head of the household while also explicitly stating to participants that male endorsement is not a substitute for a woman's consent.
Historically, much of the discussion about such issues has been carried out by foreign researchers from vastly different backgrounds from the people being studied. But African researchers have increasingly been adding nuance to the discussions, clarifying the value of learning about how women in their study populations wield power in their communities.
One of these researchers is Dorcas Kamuya, a Kenyan social scientist who has worked for more than ten years to improve community engagement in health research. “It's easy to come to our societies in Africa and say they are patriarchal,” she says. But having grown up in one of these societies, Kamuya knows that women do have power. It is just a different kind of power from that of men, and is wielded differently. “Being an African woman making decisions for myself, and watching my mother make decisions, I always struggled with the idea that women don't make decisions,” she says.
Ruth Verhey/Friendship Bench Zimbabwe
Women can discuss problems with a 'grandmother' (right) in Zimbabwe's Friendship Bench Project.
Kamuya recently published a paper1 exploring the influence of gender roles on public-health research on the Kenyan coast, where extended families ruled by male heads of households remain the norm. She and her collaborators looked at family decision-making in two community-based studies: a small study examining the transmission patterns of respiratory syncytial virus, which causes mild cold-like symptoms in adults but can cause pneumonia in infants; and a malaria-vaccine study involving 900 children.
The researchers found that although health decision-making remained strongly patriarchal at face value, and women who openly went against the wishes of the male head of the household would be censured, the women often found other, more subtle, ways to influence decisions. For example, if a woman disagrees with her husband, she might ask her mother-in-law to change her husband's mind, because a mother-in-law holds more power in the household than a wife yet is also sensitive to a wife's priorities as a woman.
Nuances such as this need to inform the way researchers approach communities, Kamuya says. She does not think researchers should abandon the idea of individual consent, or that the universal principles of research ethics need to change. “What I advocate is the idea that the way they are implemented in practice needs to take account of the context,” she explains. This might entail, for example, designing studies to make it easier for participants to consult their families about taking part if they wish.
By understanding local customs, researchers can harness traditional gender roles to keep their study running smoothly. One example is Zimbabwe's Friendship Bench Project, which aims to treat depression, anxiety and other mental-health disorders. These under-diagnosed and highly stigmatized conditions are estimated to affect more than one in four Zimbabweans, but few people want to discuss them with a doctor. The friendship-bench initiative, which has been running for ten years, pairs people who have suspected mental-health issues with elderly female lay health workers, known as 'grandmothers'. The pair meet for one-on-one sessions that take place on a secluded bench in the grounds of a clinic.
According to Dixon Chibanda, co-founder of the initiative and a mental-health researcher attached to the University of Zimbabwe in Harare, the project was designed to leverage the powerful role of elderly women in society. “They are seen as custodians of the local culture and they are rooted in the community,” he says. Grandmothers receive equal respect from men and women, breaking some of the social barriers that prevent men from talking to women doctors, he adds. Grandmothers can even mediate between parties in domestic disputes involving spousal abuse.
Chibanda says that his project differs from the well-intentioned but misguided Western-style mental-health programmes that were plonked into Africa in the past. Psychotherapy interventions introduced in Rwanda after the genocide in 1994, for instance, left locals feeling more depressed because of the emphasis on recalling sad events.
But Chibanda was more sensitive to local traditions and used input from the grandmothers in designing the friendship-bench concept, even down to deciding which words to use. The grandmothers were trained in problem-based therapy, a form of cognitive behavioural therapy, but they decided not to call it 'therapy' — a word that in their culture implies that the recipient is weak. Instead, the sessions are about “opening up the mind”.
The interventions work. A 2016 study2 found that Zimbabweans who received friendship-bench support were less likely to have depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts six months later than others who had not received it. The project is expanding to rural Zimbabwe, and Chibanda has been asked to help set up other schemes in Malawi and Zanzibar.
New technology can bring fresh ethical problems and gender-based issues. Internationally, it is standard practice for information derived from research to be fed back, as far as possible, to the individuals who participated. But in human genetic research, which is on the rise in Africa, many of the scientific concepts conflict with traditional notions of heredity and the causes of disease. Feedback to families participating in genetics research can create distress, jeopardizing continued cooperation.
Guida Landouré, a geneticist at the University of Bamako in Mali, negotiates this minefield while looking for genetic markers for neurological problems. In Mali it is common for men to take several wives, and for the first wife to be a relative, such as a cousin. This practice has created pockets of the population with increased prevalence of recessive genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis and sickle-cell anaemia. A man whose first wife has children with disease while his other children are healthy might conclude that the mother of the affected child is to blame. When researchers try to introduce the idea of inherited disease, such men can react badly. “For them, it's a diminution of their standing to say they communicated the disease,” Landouré says.
To avoid such problems, Landouré designed his study so information about genetics is introduced carefully to participants. He sometimes delays giving feedback on genetic tests until the participants have a better understanding.
As well as educating patients in the clinic, Landouré and his colleagues also hold public information sessions on TV and radio. This work is having an effect, he says. Young people in particular are becoming more aware of genetic disorders in the family, and many are taking this into account when choosing who to marry or whether to have more children.
But even when people are educated about genetics, blame can still be shifted onto women. A Kenyan study3 conducted in-depth interviews with families of children afflicted with sickle-cell disease in poor, patrilineal communities. It found that fathers who had a good understanding of genetics — who understood that traits are inherited from both parents — were more likely to question the paternity of their sick children. Rather than shoulder the blame themselves, they preferred to believe that a different man must have passed on the disease. The authors of the study — who include Kamuya — found that it was often helpful to speak about genetic illness as something that was passed down through generations, rather than as traits carried by mothers and fathers, because this was a better fit with local ideas of inheritance and helped to reduce individual blame.
If research is to be fruitful, projects must take heed of traditional decision-making processes, which are often more democratic than they seem from the outside, says Jantina de Vries, a bioethicist at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. “It's absolutely essential that there is African leadership in the design of these projects,” she says.
Kamuya believes that research in Africa is becoming more sensitive to local communities, and that this will lead to more effective protocols and real benefits. Her own work is feeding back into international discussions about research ethics, challenging the existing stereotypes that help neither the women in these societies nor the researchers studying them. “It shows the resilience of African women, the understated influence they wield to leverage their decisions,” she says, “and thus the invisible power they wield.”
- Author information
- Kamuya, D. M., Molyneux, C. S. & Theobald, S. BMJ Glob. Health 2, e000320 (2017).
- Chibanda, D. et al. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 316, 2618–2626 (2016).
- Marsh, V. M., Kamuya, D. M. & Molyneux, S. S. Ethnic. Health 16, 343–359 (2011).
Investment Laws Navigator
United Nations Conference on Trade and Investment (UNCTAD) has recently released the Investment Laws Navigator on UNCTAD's Investment Policy Hub. The new database contains detailed mapping of over 100 investment laws around the globe. Together with UNCTAD's databases on policy measures, international investment agreements and dispute settlement, it represents the key features of national and international investment policies.
The Investment Laws database allows users to access the full text of the national investment laws and search for key topics (e.g. entry conditions, investment promotion, dispute settlement) as well as for individual law articles (e.g. definition of investment, national treatment, expropriation clause).
The new UNCTAD Investment Laws database also offers a tool for policymakers, companies, academics and others to compare investment laws between countries and analyse their coherence between national investment laws and international investment agreements.
Supporting governance for climate resilience: working with political institutions
Political institutions, formal or informal, embody the underlying rules and norms within which organisations such as governments, NGOs or companies, operate (North, 1990) and play a defining role in how people and organisations respond to climate-related shocks and stresses. Democratic relations between national and local government, for example, influence capacities for quick response in an emergency, and these responses can in turn affect economic prosperity, competitiveness, livelihoods and well-being. Governance provides us with a broad term for understanding the institutions working across the state, market and civil society. This working paper identifies an agenda for research and practice to create governance that can support human resilience to multiple shocks and stresses.
Bottom-up Accountability Initiatives to Claim Tenure Rights in Sub-Saharan Africa
Summary of the research
This section summarises an on-going action-research project run by Masifundise Development Trust (MDT), an NGO working to empower Small-Scale Fishers (SSF) in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). The research examines the ways in which in one community, Arniston in the Western Cape’s South Coast region of South Africa, access to tenure rights are impacted by various governance arrangements. The research project uses the FAO Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of land, fisheries and forests in the context of national food sovereignty (hereinafter 'the tenure guidelines' or VGGT) as a tool to assess the impact of various governance frameworks on small scale fishing communities and uses the guidelines to empower communities to protect their tenure rights in the context of promoting their food sovereignty. This research unpacks the experiences of a small-scale fishing community who face different struggles as a result of governance structures impinging on their fishing rights and food sovereignty. This community is adjacent to a Marine Protected Area (MPA) and this case illustrates how MPAs impact small scale fishers’ tenure rights, and how communities resist and negotiate the challenges of exclusion. Furthermore, this research examines other governance frameworks such as the soon to be implemented Small-Scale Fishing (SSF) policy and how it complements the rights enshrined in the VGGT.
Preliminary findings suggest that the fishers have great insight into the ecosystem and, because it is their only source< of income, they have great respect for marine resources and the protection thereof. Their historical tenure arrange- ment, which was more collective than individual, ensured food sovereignty for the entire community and protected their human dignity as a people. Crime was almost non- existent and the general wellbeing of the community was marked by a harmonious life style where they were all equals. Their daily catch and fish was freely bartered with neigh- bouring farmers for vegetables and sometimes meat. According to members of this fishing community, Arniston used to have a rich tradition of making sour fig jams. These jams would be sold at community festivals. Today the farms are privately owned and the fishers need to get permission from the farmer, and a permit from Cape Nature Conservation (NCC), to be able to continue to make the jam. They feel that they are being squeezed out of their tradition and cul- ture. In the view of this fishing community, today players like Government and conservation agencies have impinged on their tenure, as well as their fishing rights and food sovereignty. They believe that, without the interference of new policies and legislature, Arniston would have been a thriving community today. Further to this, the research shows that the impacts of decisions made outside of the discussions with the fishing community of Arniston continue to jeopardize their access to food sovereignty and are in direct opposition to their basic human rights to food, security, freedom etc. They are extremely vulnerable, especially during the winter months as they can no longer access the vywes (fishing traps made with rocks) to harvest fish trapped in them. The women have also lost access rights and freedom to access intertidal resources, and therefore food security, during winter months.
They also fear that now that the 2016 elections are over, the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF) may not have the political will to implement the SSF policy. Over the past 3 years most members of this community feel that they have seen great injustices in the rights allocation system and fear that they might be excluded when the right under the SSF policy is implemented. They also feel that they have been done an injustice by their forefathers who allowed DENEL to erect a weapon testing plant so close to their community. Amidst contradicting views on the 6 | Bottom-up Accountability Initiatives to Claim Tenure Rights in Sub-Saharan Africaeffect of DENEL on their fish stock, most of the current generation strongly feel that the relationship between DENEL and the community must be revisited and, as will be read in sections four and five of this report, they have engaged in actions and negotiations with DAFF to demand some accountability in this respect. In a nutshell, most members of this community identified the following as a threat to their future as a traditional fishing village:
• No access to food during winter months;
• Less fish in the fishing grounds due to military testing;
• No access to land and sea;
• Women are denied access to food in the intertidal zone during low tide;
• Community has become divided with an increase in intra-community conflicts;
• Education is affected during times of military testing due to lot of noise and disturbance;
• Fishers are criminalised for exercising their customary rights to land and sea;
• Customs and traditions are compromised;
• Fishers are unemployed during times of military testing because they are not allowed to engage in their Livelihood activities;
• Environmental destruction because of military testing (fires, noise and air pollution, destruction of fishing grounds.
South Africa Country Report (pdf, 3.42 MB)
Global development trends and challenges: horizon 2025 revisited
In July 2012, we published Horizon 2025: creative destruction in the aid industry, which analysed some of the major forces shaping change in development cooperation, as we knew it then. Five years on we look again at our 2012 scenarios. 2017 is a milesteone shrouded in great uncertainty arising from recent political developments such as Brexit and Donald Trump's presidency. This report analyses how our previous scenarios have stood the test of time, what we missed and what we have learned since.
Our starting point is the enormous change in the landscape within which development finance agencies are operating. On the one hand there are large, unexpected factors that potentially cause massive change, but whose legacy might yet prove ephemeral. These include the populist ‘roar’ and national-interest-first movement; the global agreement on the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals, with their attendant change from business-as-usual to a transformational agenda, albeit with less consensus on how to to achieve it; and the surge of migrants and refugees from conflict, and its lasting impact both on the content of development assistance and public support for it. On the other hand, there are trends with mostly larger impact which were already apparent and in most cases identified in our earlier work, but which have grown faster or changed direction compared to what we had anticipated. These include:
- increasing concentration of poverty in fragile states, with a corresponding slowdown in global poverty reduction;
- the surge of refugees from conflict, and of migrants generally, and its lasting impact on both development assistance and the public support for it;
- the changed role of the business community from an ad hoc player;
- the continued activity on climate change, but the arguable reduction in the use of aid; and
- finally, China’s ‘big push’ on development, which has injected a geopolitical dimension to aid.
Infographic | October 2017
Working Paper Backsliding and reversal: The J-Curve revisited
Ian Bremmer published a treatise on the stability of states built on the notion that states fall along a curve resembling a slanted “J” when plotting their stability against openness. States in the turnover process are considered unstable, and are at risk of either reversing to a closed and stable system or even collapsing.
Our paper shifts the J curve’s associated conditions to a model to more accurately specify the causes of reversal in which crises of instability and backsliding occur. We define stability as a function of two state dimensions: authority and capacity, and apply the remaining state dimension of legitimacy as a proxy for openness.
We find that transitions can reverse, oscillate, or simply stall, which are exemplified in the different types of states we categorize. The paper concludes with implications for policy and the application of the model to conflict prediction.
Working Paper: Patterns of international capital flows and their implications for developing countries
According to a standard economic theory, capital should flow from rich capital-abundant countries to poor capital-scarce countries. However, a reverse pattern has prevailed in the world economy. This is the so-called Lucas paradox.
In addition, it has been shown that counterintuitively there is negative correlation between capital inflow and productivity growth across developing countries. This is the so-called allocation puzzle.
This survey attempts to shed light on the following questions: 1) What are the patterns of international capital flows in the world economy? 2) What are the most plausible explanations for these patterns? 3) What are the possible implications of these developments for developing countries?